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    • Year
      1906
      2018
    • Length
      47 m
      72 m
    • Height
      13 m
      21 m
    • Width
      1 m
      8 m
    • Diameter
      3 m
      9 m
    • Wing area
      289 m2
      434 m2
    • Wingspan (Beam)
      48 m
      73 m
    • Wing loading
      3 kg/m2
      829 kg/m2
    • Swept
      4 m
      10 m
    • Sweep
      25 deg
      68 deg
    • Aspect ratio
      1
      26
    • Disc area
      1 m2
      460 m2
    • Main rotor diameter
      1 m
      62 m
    • Rotor number
      1 qt
      8 qt
    • Blades per rotor
      4 qt
      5 qt
    • Disc loading
      17 kg/m2
      73 kg/m2
    • Tail rotor diameter
      0 m
      5 m
    • Empty weight
      103200 kg
      154800 kg
    • Max. takeoff weight (Gross weight)
      220000 kg
      330000 kg
    • Loaded weight
      5 kg
      242500 kg
    • Crew
      1 per.
      3 per.
    • Useful load
      26 kg
      90700 kg
    • Payload
      23 kg
      122470 kg
    • Capacity passengers
      240 per.
      360 per.
    • Hardpoints
      1 qt
      2576 qt
    • Ground Speed
      96 km/h
      1500 km/h
    • Max. Speed
      790 km/h
      1186 km/h
    • Сruise Speed
      776 km/h
      1166 km/h
    • Stall Speed
      40 km/h
      258 km/h
    • Landing Speed
      68 km/h
      270 km/h
    • Minimum control speed
      24 km/h
      113 km/h
    • Never exceed speed
      107 km/h
      1050 km/h
    • Fuel Capacity
      124032 l
      186048 l
    • Fuel External
      142 l
      10025 l
    • Power/mass
      0 hp/kg
      23 hp/kg
    • Thrust/weight
      0 kN/kg
      3 kN/kg
    • Afterburning thrust
      29 kN/kg
      980 kN/kg
    • Total Power
      0 hp
      60000 hp
    • Thrust
      480 kN
      720 kN
    • Service ceiling
      0 m
      161544 m
    • Static ceiling
      3 m
      5485 m
    • Range (Ferry range)
      9920 km
      14880 km
    • Range PTB (Ferry range)
      720 km
      10000 km
    • Сombat radius
      277 km
      7210 km
    • Endurance
      0 h
      150 h
    • Takeoff roll
      20 m
      3200 m
    • Landing roll
      20 m
      2570 m
    • Maximum glide ratio
      7
      43
    • Load factor from
      2 G
      9 G
    • Rate of climb
      1 m/min
      36000 m/min
    • Rate of sink
      36 m/min
      56 m/min
    • Time to altitude
      0 min
      105 min
    • Propellers
      1 qt
      8 qt
    • Prop diameter
      1 m
      6 m
    • Prop blade number
      1 qt
      8 qt
    • Guns
      1 qt
      18 qt
    • Bombs
      1 qt
      250 qt
    • Missiles
      1 qt
      24 qt
    • Rockets
      1 qt
      76 qt
    • Torpedoes
      1 qt
      4 qt
    • Bombs weight
      2 kg
      39000 kg
    • Rockets weight
      1 kg
      48 kg
    • Number built
      301 qt
      453 qt
    • Price
      41 USD
      750000000 USD

Airbus A340

TypeAircraft
Company

Airbus Group

Scheme

Low wing

Monoplane

Geometry
Length (m)
1.9
 
59.4
88.7
59,39 m - 75,36 m depending on variant
Height (m)
0.6
 
16.7
50.1
16,7 m - 17,22 m depending on variant
Wings
Wing area (m2)
1.1
 
361.6
925
or 439,4 m2 depending on variant
Wingspan (Beam) (m)
0.1
 
60.3
95
or 63,45 depending on variant
Weights
Empty weight (kg)
8
 
129,000
276,800
129000 kg - 177800 kg depending on variant
Max. takeoff weight (Gross weight) (kg)
154
 
275,000
575,000
275000 kg - 368000 kg depending on variant
Capacity
Crew (per.)
1
 
2
112
Capacity passengers (per.)
1
 
300
400
261 - 475 paz depending on variant and modification
Speeds
Max. Speed (km/h)
25
 
988
28,165
at 11000 m
Сruise Speed (km/h)
52
 
971
3,087
or 881 at 11000 m depending on variant
Fuel
Fuel Capacity (l)
23
 
155,040
320,000
147850 l - 215260 l depending on variant
Power
Thrust (kN)
1.5
 
600
1,914
4 powerplants 139 - 275 kN each depending on variant
Performance
Range (Ferry range) (km)
4
 
12,400
40,700
12400 m - 17000 m depending on variant
Stat
Number built (qt)
0
 
377
43,000
Introduction 1991
First flight 25.10.1991
When in 1970s Airbus started its activity with designing A300 model it constructed a wide family of twinjet airliners that could successfully compete on the market with Boeing and Douglas. The company developed 9 possible versions of A300 from A300B1 to A300B9. A 10th possible version A300B10 then undertook further development and became a smaller variant of A300 designated A310. After these aircraft Airbus decided to focus on more requested Single-Aisle (SA) airliners for short to medium range.

The studies of SA programme resulted into a broad family of A320 airliners that gained a huge success and were the first passenger airliner to use fly-by-wire control system. But during the time of A320 twinjet development there was a proposition from Germans to work on quadjet for long intercontinental flight that will not be limited by Extended-range Twin-engine Operation Performance Standards (ETOPS). It created the division in Airbus and during the development of SA A320 the company turned back to the wide-body market.

Designated A300B11, derivative of A310, design of which was planned upon the availability of "ten ton" engines, supposed to accommodate about 200 passengers and have a range of 11000 km. The aircraft was planned to replace less-efficient Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s still in service. At the time there was another wide-body programme but with two engines. To differentiate them from SA studies the company re-designated them as TA9 (future A330) and TA11 (future A340).

These two projects were developed simultaneously and to save costs the company decided that 2 planes would share the same wings and airframe. Besides the money saving there was another advantage of common structure as common wings could neutralize the weight of the longer-range TA11 by providing bending relief.

While deciding on the final design of TA11 Airbus actively invested in new facilities. For example, Filton got investment for three-storey technical centre with an extra 15,000 square meters (160,000 sq ft) of floor area. BAe expanded Chester wing production plant and Aérospatiale started the construction of new assembly plant.

In January 1986 the Airbus Industrie Supervisory Board had a meeting after which they announced that TA9 and TA11 technical definition are almost finished and from that moment they were officially called A330 and A340. In May 1987 Airbus sent official sale proposals to five airlines including Lufthansa and Swissair. The launch of the production was on June 5, 1987 and to that time Airbus had orders for 130 A330/340 aircraft eight-nine of which were for A340.

The maiden flight of A340 was held on October 21, 1991, becoming the start of test programme that lasted 2000 hours and involved 6 aircraft. During tests it was noticed that wings are not strong enough for outboard engines and couldn’t carry them without warping and fluttering. In order to fix this problem the so-called plastron was developed. It was an underwing bulge that strengthened the wings and ensured a correct airflow around the engines. Finally on December 22, 1992 the plane got JAA certification and in May 1993 – FAA certification.

The first two planes were delivered to Lufthansa in February 1993 and it entered service on March 15, 1993. It was A340-300 a wide-range low-wing monoplanes that could accommodate 295 in tree-class layout. The wings, designed by BAe, were swept back to 30 degrees. Each wing also had a 2,74 tall winglet. Airbus decided to place a standard cockpit similar to the one used in earlier Airbus models. That allowed a huge savings on repair, maintenance and crew education. The plane was powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C powerplants and also used auxiliary power unit (APU) Honeywell 331–350[A]. The aircraft had a range of 13700 km. This initial version was quite successful and to the July 2015 there were 141 aircraft in service.

The second shorter version was designated A340-200. It is not so popular and only 28 A340-200 have been sold. It can accommodate up to 261 passengers and flow to 13800 km. It is powered by 4 CFMI CFM56-5C4 and also uses Honeywell 331–350[A] APU. In July 2015 only 3 of the A340-200 were in service.

Introduced in February 2002 the A340-500 was the world longest-range airliner. The first customer was Emirates that allowed airplane to fly from Dubai to New York. The plane can accommodate 313 passengers and flow about 16020 km. The aircraft is powered by four 240 kN Rolls-Royce Trent 553 turbofans and also uses Honeywell 331–600[A] APU. Till the February 2006 it was the world longest-range airliner but Boeing 777-200LR beat a record conducted 21602 kilometers flight.

The last variant A340-600 entered service in August 2002. This variant is capable of carrying 379 passengers in three-class layout for 13900 km. Its length is about 75 m that is almost 12 m longer than original A340-300 variant and until February 2010 it considered being the world’s longest commercial aircraft then the Boeing 747-8 appeared. The aircraft is equipped by four Rolls-Royce Trent 556 turbofans and as any other airliner of the family it uses the Honeywell 331–600[A] APU.

In total 377 A340 aircraft were built. They got the reputation of safe airplanes as it was no fatal accidents with it but were 5 hull losses. Although the airplane was quite popular on November 10, 2011 Airbus announced that its production is concluded. It will be succeeded by a larger model A350.

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